The former Canada-U.S. free trade agreement was the subject of controversy and controversy in Canada and was touted as a theme in the 1988 Canadian election. In this election, more Canadians voted for the anti-free trade parties (Liberals and New Democrats), but the split of votes between the two parties meant that the pro-free progressive Conservatives (PCs) came out of the polls with the largest number of seats and thus took power. Mulroney and the CPCs had a parliamentary majority and passed the NAFTA bills and bills passed by Canada and the United States in 1987 without any problems. Mulroney was, however, replaced by Kim Campbell as head of the Conservatives and Prime Ministers. Campbell led the PC party in the 1993 election, where they were decimated by the Liberal Party under Jean Chrétien, who campaigned on a promise to renegotiate or abolish NAFTA. Mr. Chrétien then negotiated two additional agreements with Bush, which undermined the LAC consultation process and worked to “quickly follow” the signature before the end of his term, to give up time and to hand over to new President Bill Clinton the necessary ratification and signature of the transposition law.  According to a 2013 Jeff Faux article published by the Economic Policy Institute, California, Texas, Michigan and other high-concentration manufacturing states were most affected by NAFTA job losses.  According to a 2011 article by EPI economist Robert Scott, the trade agreement has “lost or supplanted” some 682,900 U.S. jobs.
 Recent studies have agreed with congressional Research Service reports that NAFTA has little influence on manufacturing employment and automation, accounting for 87% of manufacturing job losses.  The agreement is described differently by each signatory – in the United States, it is called the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA);   in Canada, it is officially known as the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (CUSMA) in English and the Canada-U.S.-Mexico Agreement (ACEUM) in French;  and in Mexico, tratado is called tratado between México, Estados Unidos y Canadé (T-MEC).   The agreement is sometimes referred to as “New NAFTA” with respect to the previous trilateral agreement for the successor, the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).